Portland cement mortar or grout is the most commonly used material for repairing damage to concrete structures. It is a cost-effective and easily available option, consisting of ordinary Portland cement and a suitable aggregate. Extra-fast-hardening cement is also popularly used in cold weather concreting to fix cement quickly, as it sets about 25% faster than quick-hardening cement in a day or two. Cement manufacturers in Malaysia offer low-temperature cement, which is prepared by keeping the percentage of tricalcium aluminate below 6% and increasing the proportion of C2S.
This type of cement is used in mass concrete constructions, such as gravity dams, and on concrete surfaces subject to alternate wetting and drying, such as bridge pillars. During sulfur trench replacement work, traditional Portland cement type V with microsilica mixture was also used for some sections of trenches. When cement, fine aggregates and coarse-grained aggregates are mixed with enough water, concrete forms. There are several types of cement available on the market, such as ordinary Portland cement (OPC), Portland cement pozzolana (PPC), quick-hardening cement, etc.
In this type of cement, the compounds that cause the Bogue problem, such as tricalcium aluminate (C3A) and tetracalcium aluminum ferrite (C4AF), are restricted to 5% and 6% to 12%, respectively. Low-temperature cement produces low heat of hydration during the strengthening process. Excessive hydration heat can cause premature cracking due to contraction. The evolution of heat can be controlled by reducing the heat produced by Bogue compounds.
Tricalcium silicate (C3S) and tricalcium aluminate (C3A) are reduced and dicalcium silicate (C2S) is increased to achieve sufficient strength with low heat release. Due to the delayed hydration process, early strength gain is lower, but the required strength is gained in the later stages. This type of cement is used in regions with a cold climate. The gray color of the cement is due to the presence of iron oxide. By reducing the amount of iron oxide in cement to less than 1%, white cement can be obtained.
This type of cement is used for ornamental purposes only. The five most common types of cement are ordinary Portland cement (OPC), pozzolan cement (PPC), quick-hardening cement, low-temperature cement and sulfate-resistant cement. OPC and PPC are the best types of cement for home construction. OPC grades 33, 43 and 53, Portland pozzolana cement, fast-hardening Portland cement (PSC) resistant to Portland cement sulphate (SRC), low-temperature hydrophobic Portland cement, hydrophobic Portland cement at low temperature, hydrophobic Portland cement, white cement and colored cement. Hydraulic cement is a product used to stop water and leaks in concrete and masonry structures. It is a type of cement, similar to mortar, that hardens extremely quickly after being mixed with water and is widely used in the construction industry to seal structures below ground level or in situations where structures may be affected or submerged in water. The cost of repair can be substantial but the indirect cost of stopping production to make repairs is worse.